BIOELECTRONICS AND BIOSENSORS
Biosensors are analytical devices that convert a biological response into an electrical signal. Quintessentially biosensors must be highly specific, independent of physical parameters such as pH and temperature and should be reusable. The term “biosensor” was coined by Cammann, and its definition was introduced by IUPAC.
Fabrication of biosensors, its materials, transducing devices, and immobilization methods requires multidisciplinary research in chemistry, biology, and engineering. The materials used in biosensors are categorized into three groups based on their mechanisms: biocatalytic group comprising enzymes, bioaffinity group including antibodies and nucleic acids, andmicrobe-based containing microorganisms.